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Old 07-16-2017, 11:33 AM   #1
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Atom bomb successfully tested

On this day in 1945, at 5:29:45 a.m., the Manhattan Project comes to an explosive end as the first atom bomb is successfully tested in Alamogordo, New Mexico.

Plans for the creation of a uranium bomb by the Allies were established as early as 1939, when Italian emigre physicist Enrico Fermi met with U.S. Navy department officials at Columbia University to discuss the use of fissionable materials for military purposes. That same year, Albert Einstein wrote to President Franklin Roosevelt supporting the theory that an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction had great potential as a basis for a weapon of mass destruction. In February 1940, the federal government granted a total of $6,000 for research. But in early 1942, with the United States now at war with the Axis powers, and fear mounting that Germany was working on its own uranium bomb, the War Department took a more active interest, and limits on resources for the project were removed.

Brigadier-General Leslie R. Groves, himself an engineer, was now in complete charge of a project to assemble the greatest minds in science and discover how to harness the power of the atom as a means of bringing the war to a decisive end. The Manhattan Project (so-called because of where the research began) would wind its way through many locations during the early period of theoretical exploration, most importantly, the University of Chicago, where Enrico Fermi successfully set off the first fission chain reaction. But the Project took final form in the desert of New Mexico, where, in 1943, Robert J. Oppenheimer began directing Project Y at a laboratory at Los Alamos, along with such minds as Hans Bethe, Edward Teller, and Fermi. Here theory and practice came together, as the problems of achieving critical mass-a nuclear explosion-and the construction of a deliverable bomb were worked out.

Finally, on the morning of July 16,in the New Mexico desert 120 miles south of Santa Fe, the first atomic bomb was detonated. The scientists and a few dignitaries had removed themselves 10,000 yards away to observe as the first mushroom cloud of searing light stretched 40,000 feet into the air and generated the destructive power of 15,000 to 20,000 tons of TNT. The tower on which the bomb sat when detonated was vaporized.

The question now became-on whom was the bomb to be dropped? Germany was the original target, but the Germans had already surrendered. The only belligerent remaining was Japan.
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Old 07-16-2017, 11:51 AM   #2
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Three weeks later on August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the city and immediately killed 80,000 people; tens of thousands more would later die of radiation exposure. Three days later, a second B-29 dropped another A-bomb on Nagasaki, killing an estimated 40,000 people. Japan’s Emperor Hirohito announced his country’s unconditional surrender in World War II in a radio address on August 15, citing the devastating power of “a new and most cruel bomb.”

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Old 07-16-2017, 11:59 AM   #3
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Little Boy {Hiroshima} & Fat Boy {Nagasaki} Bomb Stats

"Little Boy" and "Fat Boy"
The Little Boy Bomb:

Dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, it was the first nuclear weapon used in a war. Following are some approximate statistics for Little Boy. If you require more extensive information on this weapon, please contact us:

Weight: 9,700 lbs

Length: 10 ft.; Diameter: 28 in.

Fuel: Highly enriched uranium; "Oralloy"

Uranium Fuel: approx. 140 lbs; target - 85 lbs and projectile - 55 lbs

Target case, barrel, uranium projectile, and other main parts ferried to Tinian Island via USS Indianapolis

Uranium target component ferried to Tinian via C-54 aircraft of the 509th Composite Group

Efficiency of weapon: poor

Approx. 1.38% of the uranium fuel actually fissioned

Explosive force: 15,000 tons of TNT equivalent

Use: Dropped on Japanese city of Hiroshima; August 6, 1945

Delivery: B-29 Enola Gay piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets

The Fat Man Bomb:

Dropped on the Japanese city of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, it was the second nuclear weapon used in a war. Following are some approximate statistics for Fat Man.

Weight: 10,800 lbs

Length: 10 ft 8 in.; Diameter: 60 in.

Fuel: Highly enriched plutonium 239

Plutonium Fuel: approx. 13.6 lbs; approx. size of a softball

Plutonium core surrounded by 5,300 lbs of high explosives; plutonium core reduced to size of tennis ball

Bomb Initiator: Beryllium - Polonium

All components of Fat Man ferried to Tinian Island aboard B-29's of the 509th CG

Efficiency of weapon: 10 times that of Little Boy

Approx 1.176 grams of plutonium converted to energy

Explosive force: 21,000 tons of TNT equivalent

Use: Dropped on Japanese city of Nagasaki; August 9, 1945

Nuclear Weaponeer: Cdr. Frederick Ashworth

Delivery: B-29 Bockscar piloted by Maj. Charles Sweeney
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Old 07-16-2017, 12:50 PM   #4
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Each time that I drive by the Boeing plant in Hazelwood I am reminded by the guys in hazard suits that are loading railcars that some of the radioactive waste was sent here and they are disposing it to an unknown location.

Manhattan Project Part 1: Waste From WWII Era Atomic Bombs Left

How Radioactive Waste from the Atom Bomb Ended Up in a St. Louis Park

I started noticing this going on at least 20 years ago and the location that the waste was buried was near the Cold Water Creek. They have done multiple studies of the high cancer rate for the municipalities that border the creek and many lawsuits have been filed by those that have got cancer dating back to the 60's.

https://www.torhoermanlaw.com/coldwater-creek/

coldwater creek facts

The warehouse district in the area that the waste was buried emptied out one by one, but back in 2011 the work to remediate the sites and all of the dirt around it began. I remember my first delivery there to drop off a excavator and when I pulled up the guard checked me into the site and then the safety director handed me a mask to wear while I was there. I noticed everyone else had hazmat suits on from head to toe and all I got was a mask ?

A story that has been circulating for decades is that Mallinckrodt Chemical Works who was handling the wastes ran out of space at their downtown location and started shipping it out to the Hazelwood site. They also loaded up tractor trailers full of the waste and took it to a landfill out in Bridgeton and buried the trailers intact. To this day there is a underground fire at that landfill .

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/...=.7aa8ecfbf021
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Old 07-16-2017, 01:02 PM   #5
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Scientist will kill us all, all in the name of science.
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Old 07-16-2017, 01:41 PM   #6
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Originally Posted by Shootinit View Post
Scientist will kill us all, all in the name of science.
I tend to look at things like this as a "use or abuse" issue.

To be sure, citizens of Hiroshima were incinerated. In fact, many were missing because they were vaporized.

Then we have to figure that one million US soldiers--many veterans of the European war, were out at sea, and many would die if they had to take Japan by traditional means.

If you're a baby-boomer, you might be alive today because your daddy never had to invade Japan.
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Old 07-17-2017, 04:58 PM   #7
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Exclamation Another Bit of History

Back in late 1944 and early 1945, while my father was dropping bombs on the Fatherland, my mother volunteered for defense work.

It seemed that in order to throw off devastating U.S. bombing of Japanese cities and industrial targets, the Japanese had actually painted pictures of sections of the cities on the ground. So in order to discern what was real and what was a decoy, reconnaissance photos were taken daily with stereoscopic cameras. The defense volunteers would use stereoscopic viewers to determine what was real and what was decoy. Mom said that the real stuff just seemed to jump off the paper and the decoys remained only 2 dimensional.

Once they figured out what was real, then they pieced together maps depicting the actual buildings, plants and industries. This went on for most major Japanese cities. However, my mom worked on a city that had not even been bombed yet. On August 7th 1945, the general in charge of the defense project came in, thanked them for their tireless work and told them that their project was completed. He then advised them that they had pieced together the map for the bombing of Hiroshima. In fact, my mother had worked on the section of the city that included the Aioi Dori bridge, which was the aiming point for the first atomic bomb drop. That point was chosen because it could so easily be picked out from the air.

hiroshima map.jpg

So, my mother had a direct involvement in the bombing of the city of Hiroshima. Her portion of the map contained the actual drop zone.
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Old 07-17-2017, 05:56 PM   #8
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We knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed, a few people cried, most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad-Gita; Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince that he should do his duty and, to impress him, takes on his multi-armed form and says, "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds." I suppose we all thought that, one way or another. -Robert Oppenheimer
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Old 07-17-2017, 07:38 PM   #9
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You don't hear much about the second flight. Didn't go nearly as smoothly. Almost didn't make it back.


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Old 07-17-2017, 08:34 PM   #10
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Originally Posted by Chuck43 View Post
On this day in 1945, at 5:29:45 a.m., the Manhattan Project comes to an explosive end as the first atom bomb is successfully tested in Alamogordo, New Mexico.

Plans for the creation of a uranium bomb by the Allies were established as early as 1939, when Italian emigre physicist Enrico Fermi met with U.S. Navy department officials at Columbia University to discuss the use of fissionable materials for military purposes. That same year, Albert Einstein wrote to President Franklin Roosevelt supporting the theory that an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction had great potential as a basis for a weapon of mass destruction. In February 1940, the federal government granted a total of $6,000 for research. But in early 1942, with the United States now at war with the Axis powers, and fear mounting that Germany was working on its own uranium bomb, the War Department took a more active interest, and limits on resources for the project were removed.

Brigadier-General Leslie R. Groves, himself an engineer, was now in complete charge of a project to assemble the greatest minds in science and discover how to harness the power of the atom as a means of bringing the war to a decisive end. The Manhattan Project (so-called because of where the research began) would wind its way through many locations during the early period of theoretical exploration, most importantly, the University of Chicago, where Enrico Fermi successfully set off the first fission chain reaction. But the Project took final form in the desert of New Mexico, where, in 1943, Robert J. Oppenheimer began directing Project Y at a laboratory at Los Alamos, along with such minds as Hans Bethe, Edward Teller, and Fermi. Here theory and practice came together, as the problems of achieving critical mass-a nuclear explosion-and the construction of a deliverable bomb were worked out.

Finally, on the morning of July 16,in the New Mexico desert 120 miles south of Santa Fe, the first atomic bomb was detonated. The scientists and a few dignitaries had removed themselves 10,000 yards away to observe as the first mushroom cloud of searing light stretched 40,000 feet into the air and generated the destructive power of 15,000 to 20,000 tons of TNT. The tower on which the bomb sat when detonated was vaporized.

The question now became-on whom was the bomb to be dropped? Germany was the original target, but the Germans had already surrendered. The only belligerent remaining was Japan.
And some still say it was a terrible thing to do to end the war. Terrible for the civilians, yes BUT the other option of invading Japan would have still been terrible for the civilians and would have cost many more lives......on both sides. The better path would have been for the other countries to have never aggressed on other nations IMO!
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